To be read in conjunction with poliomyelitis , enterovirus 71 and botulism guidelines. Acute flaccid paralysis AFP is a clinical syndrome which has many infectious and non-infectious causes. Causes of AFP are listed in Table 1 below. Requires immediate notification on clinical diagnosis by telephone or fax to the local public health unit. If telephone contact is not possible, notify Senior Director CDU by email with the subject line clearly noting that the email is for urgent attention.
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Flaccid paralysis is a neurological condition characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause e. For example, if the somatic nerves to a skeletal muscle are severed, then the muscle will exhibit flaccid paralysis.
When muscles enter this state, they become limp and cannot contract. This condition can become fatal if it affects the respiratory muscles, posing the threat of suffocation. The term acute flaccid paralysis AFP is often used to describe a instance with a sudden onset, as might be found with polio. AFP is the most common sign of acute polio , and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks.
AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses other than polio, echoviruses , West Nile virus , and adenoviruses , among others. The Clostridium botulinum bacteria are the cause of botulism. Vegetative cells of C. Introduction of the bacteria may also occur via endospores in a wound. When the bacteria are in vivo , they induce flaccid paralysis.
This happens because C. Botulism toxin blocks the exocytosis of presynaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine ACh. Botulism prevents muscle contraction by blocking the release of acetylcholine, thereby halting postsynaptic activity of the neuromuscular junction. If its effects reach the respiratory muscles, then it can lead to respiratory failure, leading to death.
Curare is a plant poison derived from - among other species - Chondrodendron tomentosum and various species belonging to the genus Strychnos , which are native to the rainforests of South America. Certain peoples indigenous to the region - notably the Macusi - crush and cook the roots and stems of these and certain other plants and then mix the resulting decoction with various other plant poisons and animal venoms to create a syrupy liquid in which to dip their arrow heads and the tips of their blowgun darts.
Curare has also been used medicinally by South Americans to treat madness, dropsy, edema, fever, kidney stones, and bruises. This poison binds to the acetylcholine ACh receptors on the muscle, blocking them from binding to ACh. As a result, ACh accumulates within the neuromuscular junction, but since ACh cannot bind to the receptors on the muscle, the muscle cannot be stimulated. This poison must enter the bloodstream for it to work.
If curare affects the respiratory muscles, then its effects can become life-threatening, placing the victim at risk for suffocation. Flaccid paralysis can be associated with a lower motor neuron lesion. This is in contrast to an upper motor neuron lesion , which often presents with spasticity , although early on this may present with flaccid paralysis.
An AFP surveillance programme is conducted to increase case yield of poliomyelitis. This includes collection of two stool samples within fourteen days of onset of paralysis and identification of virus, and control of the outbreak and strengthening immunization in that area. Historical records from the s, modern CDC reports, and recent analysis of patterns in India suggest that flaccid paralysis may be caused in some cases by oral polio vaccinations.
Venomous snakes that contain neurotoxic venom such as kraits , mambas , and cobras can also cause complete flaccid paralysis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the tactical shooting technique, see Flaccid paralysis shooting. For the states of the half-erect penis or clitoris tissues, see Tumescence. See also: Acute flaccid myelitis. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Retrieved Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad. Vaccines and the Forgotten History.
Retrieved 2 March Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. October Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Emerging Infectious Diseases. BMC Infectious Diseases. ICD - 10 : G Cerebral palsy and other syndromes G80—G83 , — Upper motor neuron lesion : Pseudobulbar palsy Spastic diplegia Spastic paraplegia Hereditary spastic paraplegia Lower motor neuron lesion : Bulbar palsy Flaccid paralysis.
Cerebral palsy Cauda equina syndrome Locked-in syndrome. Categories : Symptoms and signs: Nervous and musculoskeletal systems Enterovirus-associated diseases.
Look up flaccid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Acute flaccid paralysis AFP is a complex clinical syndrome with a broad array of potential etiologies that vary with age. We present our experience of acute onset lower motor neuron paralysis. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive adult patients presenting with weakness of duration less than four weeks over 12 months period were enrolled. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations according to a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm were carried out.
Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)
Flaccid paralysis is a neurological condition characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause e. For example, if the somatic nerves to a skeletal muscle are severed, then the muscle will exhibit flaccid paralysis. When muscles enter this state, they become limp and cannot contract. This condition can become fatal if it affects the respiratory muscles, posing the threat of suffocation. The term acute flaccid paralysis AFP is often used to describe a instance with a sudden onset, as might be found with polio. AFP is the most common sign of acute polio , and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks.
About Acute Flaccid Myelitis
Print Version. Acute flaccid paralysis AFP is an abnormal condition characterized by the weakening or the loss of muscle tone. Rapid onset of weakness or paralysis, characterized as flaccid without other obvious causes e. The most common feature of AFP associated with paralytic polio is its asymmetric distribution not affecting both sides equally , which affects some muscle groups while not others, with fever present at onset.