ASTM E112-12 PDF

ASTM E has standard test methods for average grain sizing. The comparison method does not require the tester to count grains, but rather comparing of the grain structure to a series of graded images, either in the form of a wall chart, clear plastic overlays, or a grain counting eyepiece reticle. There appears to be a general bias in that comparison grain size ratings claim that the grain size is somewhat coarser than it actually is. Test Method E , one of the most widely cited ASTM standards, is concerned with the measurement of grain size when the grains are equiaxed in shape non-deformed , although it does contain some information about measurement of grain size when the grains have been elongated by processing.

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Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More E The grain size of specimens with two phases, or a phase and a constituent, can be measured using a combination of two methods, a measurement of the volume fraction of the phase and an intercept or planimetric count see Section The test methods may also be used for any structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts.

The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are:. The precision of the method is a function of the number of grains counted. An accurate count does require marking off of the grains as they are counted.

The precision of the method is a function of the number of intercepts or intersections counted. Because an accurate count can be made without need of marking off intercepts or intersections, the intercept method is faster than the planimetric method for the same level of precision.

For higher degrees of accuracy in determining average grain size, the intercept or planimetric procedures may be used. The intercept procedure is particularly useful for structures consisting of elongated grains see Section Partially recrystallized wrought alloys and lightly to moderately cold-worked material may be considered as consisting of non-equiaxed grains, if a grain size measurement is necessary.

These charts were constructed to reflect the typical log-normal distribution of grain sizes that result when a plane is passed through a three-dimensional array of grains. Because they show a distribution of grain dimensions, ranging from very small to very large, depending on the relationship of the planar section and the three-dimensional array of grains, the charts are not applicable to measurement of individual grains. These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts.

These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E Measurement of individual, very coarse grains in a fine grained matrix is described in Test Methods E Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.

Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Annex A1. Annex A2. Annex A3. Annex A4. Annex A5.

Annex A6. Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations. Appendix X1. Appendix X2. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are: 4. Scope 1. Generalities of Application. Preparation of Photomicrographs. Planimetric Jeffries Procedure. General Intercept Procedures. Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure. Circular Intercept Procedures. Hilliard Single-Circle Procedure. Abrams Three-Circle Procedure. Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes. Fracture Grain Size Method. Application to Special Situations. Referenced Adjuncts.

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Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More E The grain size of specimens with two phases, or a phase and a constituent, can be measured using a combination of two methods, a measurement of the volume fraction of the phase and an intercept or planimetric count see Section The test methods may also be used for any structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are:.

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ASTM E112 Test Using Grain Reticles

Active view current version of standard. Other Historical Standards. More E These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions.

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