BOCIO TOXICO NODULAR PDF

Thyroid nodular disease. The thyroid gland is fairly homogeneous but nodules are frequent. Nodules greater than 1. Thyroid nodular disease, the etiology of which is multifactorial, encompasses lesions, from the small incidentaloma to large multinodular intrathoracic goiter. The main diagnostic issues are related to the functional and morphological characterization using TSH measurements and image methods.

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Thyroid nodular disease. The thyroid gland is fairly homogeneous but nodules are frequent. Nodules greater than 1. Thyroid nodular disease, the etiology of which is multifactorial, encompasses lesions, from the small incidentaloma to large multinodular intrathoracic goiter.

The main diagnostic issues are related to the functional and morphological characterization using TSH measurements and image methods. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice to rule out malignancy, the incidence of which is similar in single or multinodular goiter MNG.

MNG treatment can be surgical or radioactive iodine I could be indicated if the I uptake is adequate. The benign single thyroid nodule, "cold" or "hot" at scintigraphy, can be treated with percutaneous ethanol injection. The "hot" nodule can also be treated by surgery or I. Keywords: Thyroid; Nodules; Goiter. Para Hegedus e cols. Utilizando US, Hegedus e cols. Nestes casos, a medida adequada deve ser obtida com TC ou RM. Numa pequena percentagem de casos, pode-se observar uma tireoidite induzida pelo I Utilizando doses elevadas de I, Huysmans e cols.

Multinodular goiter. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Endocr Rev ; Observer variation in the clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with thyroid dysfunction and goiter.

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Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity. Gross and microscopic findings in clinically normal thyroid glands. Medeiros-Neto G. Iodine deficiency disorders. Thyroid size determined by ultrasound. Influence of physiological factors and non-thyroidal disease.

Cigarette smoking and the thyroid. Cigarette smoking and risk of clinically overt thyroid disease: a population-based twin case-control study. Outcome of long standing solitary thyroid nodules. Pre-clinical hyperthyroidism in multinodular goiter. The natural history of euthyroid multinodular goitre. On the natural history of Plummer's disease. Major role of genes in the etiology of simple goiter in females: a population-based twin study. Krohn K, Paschke R. Progress in understanding the etiology of thyroid autonomy.

Environmental iodine intake affects the type of non-malignant thyroid disease. Hamburger JI. Evolution of toxicity in solitary nontoxic autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Wallace C, Siminoski K. The Pemberton sign. Diagnosis and treatment of the solitary thyroid nodule. Results of a European survey. LManagement of the solitary thyroid nodule: results of a North American survey. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goitre: an European questionnaire study.

Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American survey. Loh KC. Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma: a meta-review of case series. Continuing occurrence of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation to the neck in infancy and childhood. The value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with nodular thyroid disease divided into groups of suspicion of malignant neoplasms on clinical grounds.

Usefulness of ultrasonography in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Thyroid palpation vs. Thyroid incidentalomas. Prevalence by palpation and ultrasonography. Prevalence of incidental thyroid disease in a relatively low iodine intake area. Thyroid gland: US screening in middle-aged women with no previous thyroid disease. Treatment guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

American Thyroid Association. The rate of tumour growth does not distinguish between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology, sonography and radionuclide scanning in solitary thyroid nodule. Diagnostic management of solitary thyroid nodules. Management of thyroid nodules. Scanning techniques, thyroid suppressive therapy, and fine needle aspiration. Prediction of malignancy in the solitary thyroid nodule by physical examination, thyroid scan, fine-needle biopsy and serum thyroglobulin.

A prospective study of surgically treated patients. Solitary thyroid nodule: a prospective evaluation of nuclear scanning and ultrasonography. Scintigraphic diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Correlation of thyroid scintigraphy and histopathology. Ultrasonographic vs. Magnetic resonance imaging for volume estimation of large multinodular goitres: a comparison with scintigraphy.

Iodine therapy in sporadic nontoxic goiter. Jennings A. Evaluation of substernal goiters using computed tomography and MR imaging. Determination of malignancy of thyroid nodules with positron emission tomography. Fluorinefluorodeoxyglucose PET vs. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas identified by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography.

Lung function, CT-scan and x-ray in upper airway obstruction due to thyroid goitre. Upper airways obstruction in consecutive patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. Br Med J ; Total thyroidectomy or lobectomy in benign nodular disease of the thyroid: changing trends in surgery. Burch HB.

Evaluation and management of the solid thyroid nodule. The diagnostic value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasonography in nonfunctional thyroid nodules: a prospective study comparing cytologic and histologic findings. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional vs.

Diagnosis of thyroid nodules by fine needle biopsy: use and abuse. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. The problem of suspicious cytologic findings. Galectins and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta ; Differential expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in thyroid tumours: potential diagnostic implications.

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Multinodular goiter has been criticized as being a somewhat unhelpful term as some multinodular thyroids are not enlarged, resulting in the unwieldy term "multinodular non-enlarged thyroid" 7. Patients are usually euthyroid, but the nodules may also be hypo- or hyperfunctioning, resulting in systemic symptoms from hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, respectively. Multinodular goitres develop from simple goitres as a result of repeated instances of stimulation and involution 4. A nodule in multinodular goiter may harbor malignancy. A family history of malignancy and prior neck radiation exposure are known risk factors 2. Sonography remains the first radiological investigation to screen the nodules and look for any suspicion of malignant change in the nodules which is not uncommon.

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