CALLITHRIX PENICILLATA PDF

The black-tufted marmoset Callithrix penicillata , also known as Mico-estrela in Portuguese , is a species of New World monkey that lives primarily in the Neo-tropical gallery forests of the Brazilian Central Plateau. This marmoset typically resides in rainforests , living an arboreal life high in the trees, but below the canopy. They are only rarely spotted near the ground. The black-tufted marmoset is characterized by black tufts of hair around their ears. It typically has some sparse white hairs on its face. It usually has a brown or black head and its limbs and upper body are gray, as well as its abdomen , while its rump and underside are usually black.

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Behavioural and ecological aspects of black tufted-ear marmosets, Callithrix penicillata Geoffroy, Primates: Callitrichidae in a semi-urban environment. The black tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix penicillata is a small Neotropical primate, which lives in various types of environments from Cerrado Brazilian savannah , Atlantic forest to urban areas. Research shows that food availability influences home range size, group size, population density and the behaviour of marmoset groups in the wild.

The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of C. This study was performed through direct behavioural observation 84 hours on four wild groups of marmosets living within the grounds of Belo Horizonte Zoological garden, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The results show that, despite living in an urban habitat, these marmosets presented home range size 2. The animals studied spent a considerable percentage of their time travelling These results showed that behavioural activity repertoires were also found to be similar to wild-living conspecifics and therefore demonstrate the species adaptation capacity in urban environment. Keywords: Urbanization; behaviour; marmosets; Callithrix penicillata; home range.

The black tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix penicillata Geoffroy, is a small Neotropical primate to g , whose original habitat is in the Cerrado areas i. In addition to it living in these natural habitats, it is a species that can be widely found in the parks and streets of the cities of Brazil Leite et al.

Urbanization causes a reduction in natural habitats, which may result in the local extinction of species Sabbatini et al. However, behaviourally flexible species can adapt to urban areas, where in some cases, they can easily find available food resources, such as garbage Box, Urban primates, in particular, often directly compete with humans. One of the consequences of this is that some primate species are suffering changes in their behaviour, losing their fear of and, sometimes, becoming aggressive towards humans Sabbatini et al.

Due to its adaptability, learning and exploratory capacity, C. Variation in the size of the home range of the genus Callithrix is from 0. In urban areas Duarte et al. During the day, time is divided into activities, such as travelling, self-grooming, resting, social behaviour e. Food is considered a powerful regulator of animal activity Apelgren et al. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate the behavioural activity of four groups of C.

Four groups were studied. The smallest group of C. The largest group consisted of thirteen individuals. However, there was daily variation in these numbers. Over the period of the study, a mean of these numbers was used. Four study groups were chosen using the criterion that there was no apparently physical contact between these groups it was not possible to fully eliminate the possibility of vocal interactions.

In this way, the behaviour of one group probably did not influence another group; however, in some cases a non-study group interacted with two or more of our study groups. Therefore, we considered our study groups to be statistically independent units. Furthermore, all groups contained only one reproductive female, an adult male and a minimum of two juveniles group sizes ranged from a minimum of four to a maximum of thirteen individuals during the study.

To accurately represent the number of animals in our groups we counted the number of animals during each observation session, this was because a pilot study had revealed that group size varied due to births, deaths, emigrations and individuals becoming temporarily separated from their groups.

Furthermore, it was decided that as our groups were, normally, spatially cohesive units, the behaviour of the group would be considered and not the individuals in the group.

Our rationale was to reduce the risk of type I statistical errors Zar, due to artificially inflated sample sizes, which result from counting individuals in the same group as statistically independent units i. As our groups were always found in the same area, due to their territorial behaviour, it was not necessary to mark individuals Castro, and their natural individual markings made it possible to confirm the identity of group members.

To be valid, a scan sample had to have a minimum of eight sample points. Recorded behaviours are shown in Tab. To determine group size, the mean minimum number of individuals was calculated for each group during each scan.

It should be noted that due to the presence of animal enclosures it was not possible to systematically collect geographical fixes therefore analyses such as Kernel were not possible. From the collected points, for each group's home range, the two most distant points and were selected the distance between them measured; this distance was used to calculate the area of influence around each home range an arc being drawn from the geographical centre of the home range using half this distance.

To characterize the land-use and vegetation cover of each group's home range aerial photographs were interpreted using the programs Autocadmap, ArcGIS, Google Earth and GPS Track Maker so as to calculate the percentage of green area i.

The quantity of food plants in the green areas, for our study species within their home ranges, was estimated by the zoo's botanist at the start and the end of our study who ranked 1 to 4 with 1 being the highest the areas in terms of estimated natural food availability in relation to a wild marmoset's diet. The marmosets were frequently observed feeding in the enclosures of some species of birds in the zoo. Although not directly offered to the marmosets, the birds' food represented a part of the marmosets' diet personal observation.

These resources were considered as extra food for the marmosets. The amount of extra food available was estimated by considering which enclosures small primates could enter, type and quantity of available food.

From this data the groups' home ranges were ranked from the one with the most designated number 1 in the rank to the one with least designated number 4 in the rank extra food available. Visitors to the zoo, more specifically those who passed inside the boundaries of our groups' home ranges, were affecting behaviour and diet: as visitors were frequently observed interacting with and feeding the marmosets personal observation.

The number of visitors passing through home ranges was counted two eight hour sessions per area to determine the level rank of human contact with each group. The groups with most visitor contact, probably, received most extra food. As previously mentioned, the data collection was organized so that each group could be considered an independent statistical unit. The Anderson-Darling statistical test confirmed that behavioural data, for group comparisons, did not meet the requirements for parametric statistics; therefore, non-parametric statistics were used for these comparisons i.

Kruskal-Wallis and Mann- Whitney U-test. The data for correlations was tested for the requirements for parametric statistics and the two variables inactive alert and group density did not meet the requirements for parametric statistics. However, after a square-root transformation inactive alert met the requirements, it proved impossible to transform group density to meet these requirements and so this variable was not analyzed. Behavioural data for all groups per observation session was converted into proportions before any data analysis was conducted.

In order to determine if groups presented statistical differences in behaviours expressed by groups, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. When a significant difference was detected we performed post-hoc Mann-Whitney U-tests between pairs of groups with p-values corrected by the Bonferroni method for multiple comparisons Sheskin, The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to detect significant differences between the data from this study and results published in literature that related to home range size, group size and population density.

Pearson correlations were made to determine if there were correlations between recorded ecological variables i. Groups of C. To summarize inter-group comparisons for behavioural activities for full details see Tab. II : Group 4 devoted the smallest amount of time to resting and the most time inactive alert. This was also the group that spent the most time feeding and was the most visible of the groups.

Group 2 spent the largest amount of time in social positive and self-grooming behaviour. Group 1 devoted the least amount of time to travelling. The four groups of C. The home range size of each group of C. Results from other studies concerning home range size, group size and density of groups of C. IV for comparative purposes.

Estimated natural food availability Tab. III and IV with published studies showed no significant differences. The results showed that home range size, group size and population density of groups of C. These aspects seemed to be, likewise for wild conspecifics, influenced by aspects of their home range principally the occurrence of food resources in their environment. Only Group 3 had a value smaller than the published home range size Tab.

III and IV. While this group did not have an extensive green area Tab. VI , it did have the highest amount of estimated natural food available Tab. V due to the presence of an organic waste dump that provided nutrients for surrounding plants and trees.

Thus, Group 3, despite having a relatively large mean group size, was able to live in a small home range due to high estimated natural food availability. In the study, Group 2 had the largest home range, which probably reflects the fact that it had the largest mean group size and a low occurrence of food resources Tab.

However, it should be pointed out that there exists a deficiency in the published literature in that most home range data are based on only one group Tab. The area of influence values showed the same effect as home range size, except that their values were consistently higher than those reported in Tab.

Positive social behaviour decreased with increasing amounts of clearings; whereas self-grooming behaviour decreased with increasing amounts of built area. While mean group size in this study was within published limits Tab. III and IV it did vary during the study; this was due to two principal factors: disappearance of individuals and separation of individuals.

During the study it was noted that many dependent infants disappeared; for example, in Group 2 three dependent infants disappeared. The other main factor affecting group size was the temporal separation of individuals from the main group. Group 4 had a group size smaller than that recorded in the literature 4 individuals, Tab. VI and, consequently, estimated natural and extra food.

Interestingly, no infants were observed in this group, and its group size did not vary during our study. In terms of behaviour, mean group size was positively associated with resting and negatively associated with feeding behaviour. The mean group density in this study did not differ from that of studies in the Cerrado Fonseca et al. However, Group 3 showed a higher density than that of any published study Tab. III ; this was due to an exceptionally high occurrence of food resources in its home range because of the aforementioned organic waste dump.

Thus, demonstrating that C. It could be argued that the density of marmosets in this study was even higher as their green area i. Due to lack of published data and methodological differences between the present and published studies, it was not possible to do statistical comparisons for behavioural activity repertoires.

However, the percentages of time devoted to these activities were lower in this study; this was not due to these marmosets expressing behaviours not seen in other studies. Another possible explanation is that behavioural comparisons between studies are difficult due to environmental differences in food availability.

ACTION AND NONACTION VERBS EXERCISES PDF

Cross-fostering Between Two Species of Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus) and Callithrix Penicillata)

Behavioural and ecological aspects of black tufted-ear marmosets, Callithrix penicillata Geoffroy, Primates: Callitrichidae in a semi-urban environment. The black tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix penicillata is a small Neotropical primate, which lives in various types of environments from Cerrado Brazilian savannah , Atlantic forest to urban areas. Research shows that food availability influences home range size, group size, population density and the behaviour of marmoset groups in the wild. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of C. This study was performed through direct behavioural observation 84 hours on four wild groups of marmosets living within the grounds of Belo Horizonte Zoological garden, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results show that, despite living in an urban habitat, these marmosets presented home range size 2. The animals studied spent a considerable percentage of their time travelling

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Black-tufted marmoset

Cross-fostering technique can be defined as adoption of infants by adults of other species. This phenomenon is poorly investigated because very young animals have few opportunities to interact peacefully with non-conspecific adults, either in captivity or in natural conditions. This study describes the induction of cross-fostering in captivity between white tufted-ear Callithrix jacchus and black tufted-ear marmosets Callithrix penicillata. We conclude that this technique can be very useful for preserving the life of rejected by parents or orphan infants, mainly in the case of species with low reproduction rate in captivity or those threatened by extinction, as well for investigating the environmental effects on the typical behavior of species courtship, food preference, vocalization patterns, e.

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