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Main article: One of the earliest Christian dualist "heresies", originated in eastern Anatolia. The church Marcion himself established, appeared to die out around the 5th century, although similarities between Marcionism and, a heresy in the same geographical area, indicate that Marcionist elements may have survived. Paulicianism as a heresy began in the mid-7th century, when, basing his message solely on the New Testament, began to teach that there were two gods: a good god who had made men"s souls, and an evil god who had created the entire physical universe including the human body.
His followers, who became known as, were not marked by extreme deviance in lifestyle compared to contemporaries, despite their belief that the world was evil, and were renowned as good fighting men.
In the Byzantine emperor transplanted , Armenian Paulicians to Europe and settled them in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis today"s in Thrace. Under Byzantine and then later Ottoman rule, the Armenian Paulicians lived in relative safety in their ancient stronghold near, and further northward. Linguistically, they were assimilated into the, by whom they were called pavlikiani the word for Paulician. In , the gathered them into its fold. Fourteen villages near, in, embraced Catholicism, as well as the villages around Philippopolis.
A colony of Paulicians in the Wallachian village of near also followed the example of their brethren across the. The religious distribution at the time of the, showing Bogomils concentrated in the Balkans. The social-religious movement and doctrine originated in the time of — , alleged in the modern day to be a reaction against state and clerical oppression of the.
In spite of all measures of repression, it remained strong and popular until the fall of the in the end of the 14th century. Bogomilism was an outcome of many factors that had arisen in the beginning of the 10th century, most probably in the region of Macedonia. It was also strongly influenced by the who had been driven out of. The Slavonic sources are unanimous on the point that Bogomil"s teaching was Manichaean. Zealous missionaries carried their doctrines far and wide. In , scarcely 25 years after the introduction of Christianity into, we hear of a priest Adrian teaching the same doctrines as the Bogomils.
He was imprisoned by Leontius, Bishop of. In , the Church in the south of had to combat another heresiarch named Dmitri. The Church in Bulgaria also tried to extirpate Bogomilism. Several thousand went in the army of against the,; but, deserting the emperor, many of them were thrown into prison. Efforts were again put forth for their conversion; and for the converts the new city of was built, opposite Philippopolis. When the took , they found some, whom the historian calls Popelicans.
The Legend of Saint Gerard discloses that followers of Bulgarian Bogomilism were present during the early 11th century in "s realm, which comprised present day. They invoked, whose name is common in and magic. Spread of bogomilism in the Balkans. Council against Bogomilism, organized. Fresco from The Bogomils spread westwards and settled in, where they were to be known as Babuni. At the end of the 12th century and the Serbian council deemed Bogomilism a, and expelled them from the country.
Large numbers took refuge in and where they were known under the name of Patarenes Patareni. Providing refuge to heretics, including bogomils, was a recurrent pretext for Hungarian rulers to declare and extend their influence in the region.
A first Hungarian complaint to the Pope was averted by the public abjuration of the Bosnian ruler in A second Hungarian crusade against Bosnia on bogomil heresy pretext was launched in , but failed. In , rebelling against the Papal order to accept a Hungarian bishop, the chose the schism. In the following centuries, the Bosnian Church autonomous from Rome but mainly following Catholic doctrine and the heretic sect of the bogomils came to be identified with each other, due to the scarcity of documents after the Ottoman conquest.
In , with the aid of the King of Hungary, forced an agreement of Kulin to acknowledge Papal authority and religion: in practice this was ignored. On the death of Kulin in a mission was sent to convert Bosnia to Rome but failed. In , the was removed by Pope Gregory IX for allowing heretical practices. In addition, Gregory called on the Hungarian king to crusade against the heretics. However, Bosnian nobles were able to expel the Hungarians. In , Pope decided to put Bosnia"s bishop under the Hungarian Kalocsa jurisdiction.
Such decision provoked the schism of the Bosnian Christians, who refused to submit to the Hungarians and broke off their relations with Rome. In that way, an autonomous Bosnian Church came into being, in which some later saw a Bogomil or Cathar Church, while in reality no trace of bogomilism, or can be found in the original documents of the Bosnian Christians.
It was not until Pope Nicholas" Bull " Prae cunctis" in that the Franciscans-led inquisition was imposed on Bosnia. The Inquisition reported of the existence of a dualist sect in Bosnia in the late 15th century and called them "Bosnian heretics", but this sect was most likely not the same as the.
Bogomilism was eradicated in Bulgaria and Byzantium in the 13th century, but survived in Bosnia and Herzegovina until the Ottoman Empire gained control of the region in Both Catholics and Orthodox persecuted the Bogomils as heretics.
The early pressures by its Catholic and Orthodox neighbours drew Bosnia to Bogomilism. Later, with the introduction of Ottoman rule, Bosnians were often more likely to convert to Islam since they were not friends of either the Roman Catholic or Serb Orthodox churches. From Bosnia, their influence extended into Italy. The Hungarians undertook many crusades against the heretics in Bosnia, but towards the close of the 15th century, the conquest of that country by the Turks put an end to their persecution.
Few or no remnants of Bogomilism have survived in Bosnia. The Ritual in Slavonic written by the Bosnian Radoslav, and published in vol. Of the Starine of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the ritual published by Cunitz, In the 18th century, the Paulician people from around were persecuted by the Turks, presumably on religious grounds , and a good part of them fled across the and settled in the region that was part of the at the time, and became known as.
There are still over ten thousand Banat Bulgarians in today in the villages of, and also in the city of, with a few in; however, they no longer practice Bogomolism, having converted to. There are also a few villages of Paulicians in the Serbian part of, especially the villages of and Belo Blato, near.
Social factors The gradual Christianization of the Bulgarian population, the fact that the service was initially practiced in Greek, which only the elite knew, resulted in a low level of understanding of the religion among the peasantry. Due to the constant wars during the time of, the lands near the Byzantine border were devastated, and the people living there were left without occupation. The constant change of authority over these lands, and the higher taxes during the time of Tsar Peter I, gave birth to a great social discontent at the beginning of the 10th century.
Moreover, the corruption of the church as an institution, led to grave disappointment among its recently converted flock. Religious factors The existence of older Christian heresies in the Bulgarian lands and , which were considered very, influenced the Bogomil movement. Manichaeism"s origin is related to; that is why Bogomilism is sometimes indirectly connected to Zoroastrianism in the sense of its duality.
Connections to the royal court Some historians claim that tsar and in particular his son supported the movement. The core of Bulgarian empire then corresponded to the region where the Bogomils were most active. Most probably, as Samuil revolted against the Byzantine Empire, he relied on the popular support of the movement. There are no sources of Bogomil persecution during his reign — Doctrine Source texts Possible source texts for Bogomil doctrine include:. The pseudepigraphic according to Teaching The Bogomils had a system of altered traditional orthodox beliefs and rituals.
The essence behind their teaching was a dualistic doctrine that the world is divided by God and Satan good and evil.
God rules the spiritual part of the world, and Satan the material. They regarded every material being to be the work of Satan. They also opposed established forms of government and church as alike to see. From the imperfect and conflicting data that is available, one positive result can be gathered that the Bogomils were both and.
They had accepted the teaching of, though at a later period the name of Paul was believed to be that of the Apostle; and they were not quite free from the Dualistic principle of the Gnostics, at a later period too much identified with the teaching of Mani, by Photius, Petrus Siculus, and other authors.
They rejected the Christianity of the Orthodox churches and did not accept the docetic teaching of some of the other sects. Dualist beliefs and customs The Bogomils taught that God had two sons, the elder Satanail and the younger Michael.
The elder son rebelled against the father and became the evil spirit. After his fall, he created the lower heavens and the Earth and tried in vain to create man; in the end, he had to appeal to God for the Spirit. After creation, Adam was allowed to till the ground on condition that he sold himself and his posterity to the owner of the Earth. Then, Michael was sent in the form of a man; he became identified with Jesus and was "elected" by God after the baptism in the Jordan.
When the Holy Ghost again Michael appeared in the shape of the dove, Jesus received power to break the covenant in the form of a clay tablet hierographon held by Satanail from Adam.
Satanail was thus transformed into Satan. Through his machinations the crucifixion took place, and Satan was the originator of the whole Orthodox community with its churches, vestments, ceremonies, sacraments and fasts, with its monks and priests. This world being the work of Satan, the perfect must eschew any and every excess of its pleasure.
But the Bogomils did not go so far as to recommend asceticism. They held the "Lord"s Prayer" in high respect as the most potent weapon against Satan, and had a number of conjurations against "evil spirits". Each community had its own twelve "apostles", and women could be raised to the rank of "elect".
The Bogomils wore garments like and were known as keen missionaries, travelling far and wide to propagate their doctrines. Healing the sick and exorcising the evil spirit, they traversed different countries and spread their apocryphal literature along with some of the books of the Old Testament, deeply influencing the religious spirit of the nations and preparing them for the Reformation. They sowed the seeds of a rich, popular religious literature in the East as well as the West.
Christology and the Trinity For Bogomils "the was not the, the, but merely the spoken word of God, shown in the oral teaching of Christ". Although Bogomils regarded themselves as "Trinitarian", anathemas against Bogomils circa charge Bogomils with rejection of the. Connexion :. Best Pdf Editor Download Each community had its own twelve "apostles", and women could be raised to the rank of "elect". Fill A Pdf Form Opposition to institutions and materialism.
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Carcassonne: Die Katharer
It is named after the medieval fortified town of Carcassonne in southern France, famed for its city walls. The game has spawned many expansions and spin-offs, and several PC, console and mobile versions. A new edition, with updated artwork on the tiles and the box, was released in The game board is a medieval landscape built by the players as the game progresses.
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